• HIST 298

    Thesis and Argument

    Riis’ How the Other Half Lives examined the conditions of tenement housing, issues such as  disease that came as a result of these conditions, and advocated for increased reform efforts. Riis’ work was then used by historians to better explain the reform movement in New York City. Topics: Housing Conditions, Disease, and Reform

  • HIST 298

    Jacob Riis Photography

    Riis, Jacob A. Lodgers in a crowded Bayard Street tenement. 1890. Jacob A Riis. Museum of the City of New York, New York City. This picture was one of the many photographs Jacob Riis took while advocating for tenement reform in New York City. Riis’ photographs were used as evidence during the period to support the reformer’s arguments.

  • HIST 298

    Secondary Sources

    Klapper, Melissa R. Small Strangers: The Experiences of Immigrant Children in America, 1880-1925. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007. Melissa Klapper is a professor at Rowan University where she teaches American and Women’s History. Her research interests include history of childhood, history of education, and history of American Jews. More information on Klapper can be found here. Orser, Charles E. “Beneath the Surface of Tenement Life: The Dialectics of Race and Poverty during America’s First Gilded Age.” Historical Archaeology 45, no. 3 (2011): 151-65. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23070040  Charles E. Orser Jr. is an anthropological historian archeologist who studies the modern world. His experience in historical archeology is in the US, Europe, and South America. For more information…

  • HIST 298

    How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis

    ..in its beginning, the tenant-house became a real blessing to that class of industrious poor whose small earnings limited their expenses, and whose employment in workshops, stores, or about the warehouses and thoroughfares, render a near residence of much importance. Not for long, however. As business increased, and the city grew with rapid strides, the necessities or the poor became the opportunity of the their wealthier neighbors, and the stamp was set upon the old houses, suddenly become valuable, which the best thought and effort of a later age have vainly struggled to efface. Their large rooms were partitioned into several smaller ones, without regard or ventilation, the rate of rent being lower…